Caiman University™

In this class we discuss topics such as how to choose diamond blades, core drill bits, grinding cup wheels, profile router bits.  In addition, we list safety instructions for each topic as well as cutting depth (blades) and recommended RPM.  Finally, we will show you an aggregate map of the United States and Canada.

Caiman® / Primax Diamond Tool, Inc. strongly recommends safe and proper handling of power tools and diamond tooling to achieve professional workmanship while ensuring a safe and productive work environment for everyone.  Please take time to read the following guidelines carefully.  Most importantly, please read and follow the instructions and warning statements on manuals provided with the tools and equipment you are using.  Each and every job is unique.  It is the user's responsibility to ensure proper selection and working condition of tools for the task with proper personal protective gears required by law.

 

Topics covered:

  1. Diamond Blades
  2. Diamond Core Drill Bit
  3. Diamond Grinding Cup Wheel
  4. Diamond Sintered Profile Router Bit
  5. U.S. and Canada Aggregate Map

 

How to Choose a Diamond Blade

Choosing the right diamond blade for your application will undoubtedly improve efficiency and lower costs.  Deciding on which diamond blade is right for the job depends on many different areas.  Here are just a few....

  • Knowing your equipment - You always want to choose the right blade for the material being cut and, more importantly, the tool being used.  If you are unsure of your tools specifications, you should refer to the owners manual that accompanied the tool.  If you no longer have the manual, you can always check the manufacture's website.
  • Are you cutting wet or dry? - Most of the time, this decision comes down to user preference or job location.  For obvious reasons, when using a grinder, or any electric hand tool, for cutting, it is not safe to cut wet because of the electrical power source.  Users with walk-behind saws generally prefer wet cutting due to the deeper cuts when using water as a coolant.  For masonry and/or tile saws, you can choose either wet or dry cutting.  When using these tools with water, the blades will cut quicker and last longer, improving efficiency and lowering cost.
  • Understanding the material - Hands down, the most important factor in selecting the correct diamond blade is understanding the material to be cut.  Believe it or not, knowing this directly affects the performance, cutting speed and the life of the blade.  Hard materials like granite require the use of a soft bond diamond blade.  Due to the soft bond of the blade, the diamonds within the blade will release at the point of maximum use.  By doing this, the blade will continue to cut without the worry of the blades bond holding the diamonds for too long, which would cause the diamond blade to overheat and ultimately stop cutting.  For medium-hard materials like concrete, a similar medium-hard bond diamond blade is needed.  A diamond blade with a medium-hard bond will give you that balance needed in keeping the diamond grit exposed at its maximum point while ensuring the material being cut wears the bond of the blade at the correct speed.  Asphalt is an example of a soft material.  For this material, a hard bond is needed.  A diamond blade with a hard bond generally holds the diamonds longer so they work at their optimal level.  Something worth noting... if you use a soft bonded diamond blade to cut soft material, the bond of the blade wears quickly thus releasing the diamonds too soon giving you lower productivity, and costing you more.  It's good to know that a majority of diamond blades can and will cut a wide spectrum of materials, however, the diamond blade should be paired with the material as closely as possible to ensure the highest productivity and cost per cut.  A good rule of thumb is to determine the material that will be cut and then select the best diamond blade for the job.

 

Diamond Blade Safety Instructions

  1. Observe the working safety site regulations.
  2. Keep bystanders and/or animals out of the work area.
  3. The use of OSHA approved safety goggles, gloves, footwear, ear and head protection and a mask are recommended.
  4. Before use, examine the Caiman® diamond blade for any cracks or other damage.
  5. Ensure that the Caiman® diamond blade is suitable for the material being cut.
  6. Disconnect power to the machine before mounting the Caiman® diamond blade.
  7. Ensure that the blade guard is mounted and correctly fitted.  Never pull guards back, remove them, or leave them in the open position.
  8. The Caiman® diamond blade should always be mounted with the rotation arrow pointing in the correct direction.
  9. Ensure that the arbor diameter of the Caiman® diamond blade is the exact same as the machine spindle.  Never enlarge the arbor size.
  10. Special attention should be made to ensure that the blade washers/flanges are both clean and of the same diameter, and that they are correctly assembled on the machine shaft.  Do not use if the Caiman® diamond blade rattles or wobbles.
  11. Ensure that the cutting surface is clean from debris.
  12. Ensure that the proper RPM is used to avoid overheating and glazing.
  13. Before performing any cutting, let the tool run for a few seconds without load.  If the Caiman® diamond blade wobbles, vibrates or has an unusual noise, stop the tool immediately.  Examine the Caiman® diamond blade for damage or incorrect mounting.
  14. Do not stand in line with the Caiman® diamond blade or the stream of sharp, hot particles.
  15. To ensure longer diamond life, use water to assist in the cooling of the Caiman® diamond blade.
  16. Maintain a firm grip on the tool during cutting.
  17. Avoid sharp or abrupt contact with the material being cut.
  18. Avoid excessive cutting pressure which could jam the Caiman® diamond blade in the cut.
  19. Maintain a straight cutting plane to avoid side load or twist.
  20. The Caiman® diamond blade is intended for straight cutting only.  Cutting curves will cause stress cracks or fragmentation on the blade, resulting in possible injury.
  21. Do not use side pressure or grind with the side of the Caiman® diamond blade.
  22. Do not use the Caiman® diamond blade for extensive periods.  Excessive heat can cause vibration and glazing.  To assist cooling, simply lift the Caiman® diamond blade out of the cut for several  seconds and then continue cutting.

 

The Do's and Don'ts of using Diamond Blades

Do's

  • Carefully follow the manufacture's recommendation for material being cut
  • Check for suitability of cutting dry
  • Inspect diamond blade for damage before mounting on saw
  • Inspect arbor shaft and mounting flanges for damage or uneven wear and that they are of equal or correct diameter
  • Be sure the blade is mounted in correct diameter shaft with arrow in the proper direction of rotation and bade shaft nuts aresecurely tightened with wrench
  • Check for continuous flow of water to both sides of the blade in case of wet cutting
  • Inspect power tool for proper condition before operating
  • Inspect blade periodically during use for fatigue cracks, segment damages, and excess wear under segments
  • Wear proper safety equipment such as safety glasses, safety footwear, snug fitting clothing, hearing and head protection, and respiratory equipment at all times

Don'ts

  • Do not operate any saw without safety guards in place and properly secured
  • Do not exceed maximum operating speed established for blade diameter
  • Do not force blades onto machine blade shaft, alter size of mounting hole, or tighten mounting in air every few minutes
  • Do not operate saw with blade diameter larger than machine's capacity
  • Do not cut dry with blade recommended for wet cutting
  • Do not force blade into material.  Allow blade to cut at its own speed.
  • Do not cut or grind with side of blade
  • Do not cut a curve or radius
  • Do not stand in direct line with dry diamond or abrasive blades during start-up or during cutting operation

 

Diamond Blade Cutting Depths and Recommended RPM

DIAMETER (Inch) BLADE CUTTING DEPTHS BLADE OPERATING SPEEDS
TILE SAW BLADES CONCRETE SAW BLADES MASONRY SAW BLADES CIRCULAR SAW BLADES HIGH SPEED SAW BLADES RECOMMENDED RPM MAXIMUM RPM
4" 3/4"     1"   9,072 15,000
4.5" 1"     1-1/4"   8,063 13,300
5" 1-1/4"     1-1/2"   7,257 12,000
5.125" 1-1/4"     1-1/2"   7,257 12,000
6" 1-3/4"     2"   6,048 10,185
7" 2-1/-4" 1-1/2"   2-1/2"   5,184 8,730
8" 2-3/4" 2"   3"   4,536 7,640
9" 3-1/4"         4,032 6,790
10" 3-3/4"         3,629 6,115
12"   3-3/4" 4"     3,024 5,095
12"         4" HIGH SPEED 6,300
14"   4-3/4" 5"     2,592 4,635
14"         5" HIGH SPEED 5,460
16"   5-3/4" 6"     2,268 3,820
16"         6" HIGH SPEED 4,800
18"   6-3/4"       2,016 3,395

 

Diamond Blade Troubleshooting

PROBLEM CAUSE REMEDY
Blade worn out-of-round Shaft bearings are worn Install new blade shaft as required
Blade arbor hole is damaged from previous improper mounting Replace worn shaft or mount an arbor reducer
Blade will not cut The bond is too hard for the material being cut Use a blade with a softer bond
Blade has become dull (glazed) as a result as of being used on too hard of a material Glazed blades can be re-opened by cutting a soft, abrasive material such as concrete
Machine has insufficient horsepower Change to a lower horsepower blade
Cutting is slow Ensure correct blade direction or rotation
Uneven segment wear Insufficient water (usually on one side of the blade Flush out water system and check flow and distribution to both sides of the blade
Equipment defects cause the segments to wear unevenly Replace bad bearings, worn arbor or misalignment to the spindle
Saw is improperly aligned Check saw head aligned for squareness both vertically and horizontally
Arbor hole out-of-round Blade collar is not tightened, allowing blade rotation or vibration on the shaft Tighten the shaft nut with your wrench to make certain that the blade is adequately secured
Blade collar is not tightened, allowing blade cramping Clean blade collars, making certain that they are not worn
Blade is not properly mounted Make sure that the blade is mounted on the proper shaft diameter before tightening the shaft nut
Segment cracks The bond is too hard for the material being cut Use a blade with a softer bond
Blade wobbles Blade is running at improper speed Make certain that the blade shaft is running at the recommended RPM to match tensioned speed of the blade
Blade collar diameters are not identical Check blade collars to make sure they are clean, flat, and the correct diameter
Blade is bent as a result of dropping or twisting Get a new blade or have the blade retensioned
Segment loss Overheating due to lack of water Check water feed lines and make sure water flow is adequate on both sides
Steel center is worn from undercutting Use sufficient water to flush out the cut
Defective blade collars are causing improper blade alignment Clean blade collars or replace
Bond is too hard for material being cut Use a blade with a softer bond
Blade is cutting out of round, causing a pounding motion Replace worn bearing
Improper blade tension Ensure blade is running at correct RPM and that the blade is tensioned for correct RPM
Cracks in steel center Blade flutters during cutting as a result of losing tension Tighten the shaft nut and have the blade retensioned
Blade specification is too hard for the material being cut Use softer bond to eliminate stress which created cracks
Bad blade shaft bearing Replace bad shaft bearing
Steel center has been overheating as a result of blade spinning on arbor Check water flow, distribution and lines, and make sure to tighten the blade shaft nut
Loss of tension Steel center has been overheating from rubbing the side of the material being cut Make certain that the blade RPM is correct so that the blade operates at its tensioned speed
Unequal pressure at blade clamping collars Blade clamping collars must be identical in diameter and the recommended size
Bond is too hard for material being cut Use a blade with a softer bond

 


How to Choose a Diamond Core Drill Bit

How do you know if you need a wet or dry diamond core drill bit?  It is important to know that dry core bits are to be used on materials that are not very hard such as ceramic tiles, bricks and possibly some soft to medium concrete.  For obvious reasons, ensure that you have adequate ventilated space when dry drilling.  The use of a dust collection attachment can help keep the dust at a minimum.  To get the most life out of your diamond core bit, it is recommended to use with wet drilling.  Aside from longer life, wet drilling also minimizes dust particles being spewed into the air.  Laser-welded diamond core drill bits provide a greater bond strength when used at high temperatures rather than the traditional silver-brazed core bits.

 

Diamond Core Drill Bit Safety Instructions

  1. Observe the working safety site regulations.
  2. Keep bystanders and/or animals out of the work area.
  3. The use of OSHA approved safety goggles, gloves, footwear, ear and head protection and a mask are recommended.
  4. Before use, examine the Caiman® diamond core bit for any cracks or other damage.  Do not use if damage is suspected.
  5. Ensure that the Caiman® diamond core bit is suitable for the material being cut.
  6. Disconnect power to the machine before mounting the Caiman® diamond core bit.
  7. Ensure that the Caiman® diamond core bit is securely fastened to the machine.  If the Caiman® diamond core bit does not securely fit, a washer may be put between the Caiman® diamond core bit and the machine to ensure a tight fit.
  8. Ensure that the coring surface is clean from debris.
  9. Use of the Caiman® diamond core bit is recommended on a stationary core machine.  If using the Caiman® diamond core bit on a hand-held machine, maintain a straight cutting plane to avoid side load or twist.  The use of a guide or pilot may help the Caiman® diamond core bit maintain a straight core through the material being cut.
  10. Maintain a firm grip on the tool during coring.
  11. Ensure that adequate water is properly disbursed to the Caiman® diamond core bit so that there is sufficient cooling.  A water  containment device is recommended for coring indoors.
  12. Ensure that the proper RPM is used to avoid overheating and glazing.
  13. Before coring, let the tool run for a few seconds without load.  If the Caiman® diamond core bit wobbles, vibrates or has an unusual noise, stop the tool immediately.  Examine the Caiman® diamond core bit for damage or incorrect mounting.
  14. To ensure longer diamond life, avoid sharp or abrupt contact with the material being cut.
  15. If using a hand-held machine, do not rock the Caiman® diamond core bit side to side when coring.  Rocking may cause the segments (or continuous diamond wall) of the Caiman® diamond core to detach from the shank and possibly cause injury.  Simply use adequate pressure on the Caiman® diamond core bit while maintaining a straight cutting plane.
  16. Do not use the Caiman® diamond core bit for extensive periods.  Excessive heat can cause vibration and glazing.  To assist cooling, simply lift the Caiman® diamond core bit out of the cut for several seconds and then continue coring.
  17. Reduce pressure as the Caiman® diamond core bit reaches the point of breakthrough on the material being cut.

 

Diamond Core Drill Bit Recommended RPM

DIAMETER MINIMUM RPM MAXIMUM RPM
1" - 1-1/8" 2,400 2,860
1-1/4" - 1-3/8" 1,700 1,900
2" 700 1,150
2-1/4" - 2-1/2" 575 950
3"+ 450 720

 

Diamond Core Drill Bit Troubleshooting

PROBLEM CAUSE REMEDY
Core will not drill The material is too hard for the application Match material spec to core bit spec
Insufficient machine power Check the motor speed or use a more powerful drill
Speed too high Lower speed
The diamond impregnation is blunt (glazed) Sharpen bit with a grinding stone or abrasive material
Drill motor running, but core bit not rotating Check slip clutch or have drill repaired
Water flow too high Reduce water flow
Excessive play of the drilling stand guides Check drill stand or have it repaired
The weight on the tool is insufficient Increase weight
Excessive diamond segments wear Material is more abrasive than anticipated Use a bit with a harder diamond specification
Motor power is too strong Adjust motor speed to core bit diameter
Insufficient flow of water Increase water flow
Too much play on the drill causing vibrations Check drill settings or have it repaired
Contact pressure too high Lower pressure
Insufficient speed of bit rotation Increase speed
Excessive speed of advance Decrease advance speed
High level of core bit barrel wear The bit is warped Discontinue use and replace
Drilling on angle Avoid angle drilling
Too much play on the drill causing vibrations Check drill settings or have it repaired
The machine is incorrectly anchored Anchor the machine correctly
The bit is incorrectly attached to the motor spindle Aligned bit on the motor spindle... straight line.
Insufficient flow of water Increase water flow
Too much play on the drill causing vibrations Check drill settings or have it repaired
Diamond segments breaking Breakage due to equipment being dropped Avoid dropping the core bit or tool on the ground
Core bit has taken some knocks in the drill hole Clear out any residues from the drill hole before using new bit
Excessive speed causes segments to heat up Adjust tool speed
Insufficient flow of water Increase water flow
Startup to excessive Begin slowly, increase feed speed once segments are fully inserted
Core stuck in core bit No clearance on diamond segments Core bit must extend beyond inside and outside of barrel
Lateral stress when using without stand Use drill stand or tool's linear guide
Insufficient flow of water Increase water flow
Cracks in the core bit barrel Excessive vibrations while drilling Adjust drilling anchor system
Core bit barrel is becoming thin Replace core bit
Bent segments Too much play in tool Adjust tool settings
Core bit hitting substrate Ensure clearance of substrate
Tool is incorrectly anchored to substrate Check anchor system

 


How to Choose a Diamond Grinding Cup Wheel

A diamond cup wheel is used to grind materials such as granite, marble and concrete. A cup wheel's segments can determine the overall performance. Due to the different characteristics of various materials, a diamond cup wheel must also have different characteristics.  This relates to the cup wheel's bond and diamonds within the segment.  If you are working with a soft material, the cup wheel should have a hard bond ensuring the diamonds will last long giving optimal life.  If you are working with a hard material, the bond should be soft to allow the diamonds expose themselves.  Diamond cup wheels can be found in Coarse (30/40 grit), Medium (60/80 grit) and Fine (120/140 grit).  Typically, all grits are used in the grinding process to make for a clean process.  Coarse cup wheels will have a soft bond with a low concentration of big diamonds.  Fine cup wheels will be the opposite.  They will have a hard bond, with a high concentrate of smaller diamonds.

 

Diamond Grinding Cup Wheel Safety Instructions

  1. Observe the working safety site regulations.
  2. Keep bystanders and/or animals out of the work area.
  3. The use of OSHA approved safety goggles, gloves, footwear, ear and head protection and a mask are recommended.
  4. Before use, examine the Caiman® diamond cup wheel for any cracks or other damage.  Do not use if damage is suspected.
  5. Ensure that the Caiman® diamond cup wheel is suitable for the material being cut.
  6. Disconnect power to the machine before mounting the Caiman® diamond cup wheel.
  7. Ensure that the Caiman® diamond cup wheel is securely fastened to the machine.  If the Caiman® diamond cup wheel does not securely fit, a washer may be put between the Caiman® diamond cup wheel and the machine to ensure a tight fit.
  8. Ensure that the machine guard is mounted and correctly fitted.  Never pull guards back, remove them, or leave them in the open position.
  9. Ensure that the grinding surface is clean from debris.
  10. Maintain a firm grip on the tool during grinding.
  11. To ensure longer diamond life, use water to assist in the cooling of the Caiman® diamond cup wheel.
  12. Ensure that the proper RPM is used to avoid overheating and glazing.
  13. Before grinding, let the tool run for a few seconds without load.  If the Caiman® diamond cup wheel wobbles, vibrates or has an unusual noise, stop the tool immediately.  Examine the Caiman® diamond cup wheel for damage or incorrect mounting.
  14. Avoid sharp or abrupt contact with the material being cut.
  15. Maintain a straight grinding plane to avoid side load or twist.
  16. Do not use the Caiman® diamond cup wheel for extensive periods.  Excessive heat can vibration and glazing.

 

Diamond Grinding Cup Wheel Maximum RPM

DIAMETER MAXIMUM RPM
4" 11,000
5" 10,500
6" 10,000
7" 8,500

 


Sintered Diamond Profile Router Bit

Diamond profile router bits are typically used with water-fed routers such as Master, Sector, Stinger, Ghines, Hercules and other portable routers to create a wide variety of shapes or edges on granite or marble countertops.  Using any of the aforementioned routers, and a diamond profile router bit, you can achieve phenominal results fairly easy.

 

Sintered Diamond Profile Router Bit  Safety Instructions

  1. Observe the working safety site regulations.
  2. Keep bystanders and/or animals out of the work area.
  3. The use of OSHA approved safety goggles, gloves, footwear, ear and head protection and a mask are recommended.
  4. Before use, examine the Caiman® router bit for any cracks or other damage.  Do not use if damage is suspected.
  5. Ensure that the Caiman® router bit is suitable for the material being cut.
  6. Disconnect power to the machine before mounting the Caiman® router bit.
  7. Caiman® router bits are manufactured to fit industry water-fed routers including the Stinger, Master, and Ghines Sector, etc.
  8. Ensure that the Caiman® router bit is securely fastened to the router shaft.  Do not use if the Caiman® router bit rattles or wobbles.  Small washers are included with each Caiman® router bit to fit on top of the bearing, to assist with different thicknesses of stone (optional).
  9. Ensure that the bearing on the Caiman® router bit freely spins and is well lubricated.
  10. Ensure that adequate water is properly disbursed to the Caiman® router bit so that there is sufficient cooling.
  11. Ensure that the proper RPM is used to avoid overheating and glazing.
  12. To ensure longer diamond life and to maintain the proper shape, chamfer the edge of the material with a Caiman® breaker bit or use a position 0 Caiman® router bit.
  13. Avoid sharp or abrupt contact with the material being cut.
  14. Adhere to the instructions given for the router/profiler in which the Caiman® router bit will be fastened to.

 

Sintered Diamond Profile Router Bit  Maximum RPM

DIAMETER MAX RPM
All Sizes 6,500

 


U.S. and Canada Aggregate Map

Caiman® U.S. and Canada Aggregate Map

COLOR HARDNESS AGGREGATE
  Soft Dolomite Limestone, Sandstone, Siliceous, Soft Limestone, Soft Shell
  Medium Soft Dolomite, Limestone, Pit Gravel
  Medium Decomposite Granite, Med. Crushed Gravel, Med. Hard River Rock, Med. Traprock
  Medium Hard Basalt, Granite, Quartzite, Slate, Traprock
  Hard Flint Rock, Hard Chert, Hard River Rock, Quartz